Celestia

Celestia

Modular Blockchains
What is Celestia?
Celestia is a layer 1 (L1) blockchain that is optimized for ordering transaction data and making it available.
  • Celestia is a modular data availability layer built for rollups to utilize.
  • Celestia achieves properties of scalability, flexibility and interoperability unmatched by previous blockchain designs.
  • Celestia is a modular data availability layer built for rollups to utilize.
    • It’s a pluggable component for rollup teams to input their transaction data, with high data throughput.
Celestia doesn’t function like a typical layer 1 blockchain.
  • Its only job is to order transactions and verify that the data being published is available. By taking this approach, Celestia achieves properties of scalability, flexibility and interoperability unmatched by previous blockchain designs.
  • Currently, Ethereum rollups collect data from multiple transactions into a single batch transaction, which is posted to Ethereum. This batch transaction includes the rollup's transaction data as calldata, i.e. data that is posted to Ethereum but not executed directly.
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Celestia Images
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What is Celestia’s goal?
  • While many scalability solutions are tied to a specific Blockchain, Celestia helps to solve the issue from the ground up by focusing on the real bottleneck: data availability.
    • This approach makes large amounts of data accessible, ultimately scaling the entire decentralized Blockchain ecosystem.
Use case for Celestia’s token
  • Yes, Celestia will have a token that will be used to secure the network via Proof of Stake, and to pay for transaction fees on the network. We plan to implement a fee-burn mechanism similar to EIP-1559 in Ethereum so that burnt fees will offset new token issuance as Celestia gains adoption.
How does Celestia scale?
  • Celestia is able to scale as the number of users (light nodes) in the network increases.
  • Celestia remains secure so long as there are enough nodes on the network to sample the entire block.
    • This means that as more nodes join the network and sample, the block size can increase accordingly without sacrificing security or decentralization.
    • Doing so on a traditional blockchain would sacrifice decentralization because a bigger block size would create a larger hardware requirement for nodes to download and verify data.
  • Rollups also depend on data availability for their scalability, so better scaling potential for Celestia will also translate to better scaling potential for the rollups utilizing Celestia.
Optimint
Quantum Gravity Bridge: Secure Off-Chain Data Availability for Ethereum L2s with Celestia (using Celestiums)
Celestiums
What is data availibility?
Can Celestia support both zk rollups and optimistic rollups?
  • Yes, Celestia doesn’t impose any restrictions on the types of rollups or blockchains that can use it.
    • This means that anybody will be able to deploy a zk or optimistic rollup on top of Celestia.
Is Celestia only available for the Cosmos ecosystem?
  • No, blockchains from any network can deploy or utilize Celestia for data availability and consensus to tap into its shared security.
  • What being a part of Cosmos does allow for is that the Celestia main chain has the option to connect to IBC and communicate with other IBC-enabled zones.
What is the difference between Celestia and data storage blockchains like Arweave and Filecoin?
  • Celestia is a blockchain that focuses on data availability whereas the latter is focused on data storage.
    • Data availability is concerned with whether the data published in the latest block is available.
    • This is distinctly different from data storage, which is concerned with storing data securely and providing guarantees that it can be retrieved when needed.
  • These distinct focuses lead to differences between their target use-cases.
    • Data storage blockchains are particularly focused on providing a decentralized way for data to be stored and accessed.
    • Conversely, Celestia is designed to provide secure and scalable data availability for blockchains and specialized execution environments, like rollups.
What makes data storage blockchains unsuitable for rollups
  • It’s lack of data availability sampling. Lacking this feature determines that nodes would not be able to efficiently verify that the data for their rollup has actually been published by the rollup sequencer. Using Arweave as an example, rollup nodes would instead have to download the entire Arweave chain to check its data availability – an infeasible task for a blockchain that is already 43TB.
  • Arweave nodes must also trust that the consensus set is honest to assume that the data is available (via its proof-of-access consensus mechanism) - an assumption that rollups avoid. Additionally, it would be non-trivial for Arweave to support data availability sampling, because it would require a minimum number of light clients to sample and distribute small chunks from every block to guarantee security, such that the light clients can collectively recover the block. This means that the block size must be limited according to how many light clients are expected to be in the network, sampling chunks. This also applies to other data storage blockchains.
  • Ultimately, data storage blockchains are designed to store greater amounts of data but with lower security guarantees that are unsuitable for rollups, but suitable for the "permaweb" use case, whereas Celestia is designed to store less data but with greater security guarantees that are suitable for rollups.
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